(Other than wild grapes and domesticated Muscadine Grapes)
  • Large food grade-quality plastic or earthenware crock (primary fermenter)
  • 1 or more clean narrow-neck glass jugs (secondary fermenters)
  • Fermentation locks for each secondary fermenter
  • Plastic syphon tubing
  • 5 "fifth" (750 ml.) wine bottles and corks for each gallon to be made
  • Large plastic sheet or cover for primary fermenter
  • Sodium metabisulfite to sanitiize equipment and bottles
  • 15 - 18 lbs. of grapes per gallon of wine (stems removed)
  • Pectic enzyme
  • Campden tablets
  • Super Ferment yeast nutrient
  • Wine yeast
  • May Need: Acid blend, & Tannin
  • NOTE: Sterilize all equipment with Sodium Metabisulfite before use.
  1. Wash grapes if possible. Place grapes in primary fermenter and add one campden tablet per gallon (dissolved in 1 cup warm water). Crush grapes. Add 3 drops liquid pectic enzyme per gallon of wine to be produced. Stir well. Cover and allow to sit over night, stirring every 5 - 6 hours.
  2. The next day stir well, and remove about 4 - 5 cups of pulp. Strain off the juice. Use a portion of this juice to take an acid test. Adjust the acid of the must to about .6% as Tartaric Acid. Use the rest of the juice sample to test the sugar content. Adjust the sugar content to about 1.090 specific gravity .
  1. If making a white wine, the juice should be pressed from the pulp immediately! Place grapes in primary fermenter and crush. Add the pectic enzyme, and press immediately. Add one campden tablet per gallon.
  2. Proceed immediately to checking the acid and sugar and making the necessary adjustments. A small amount of tannin (1/2 to 1 tsp. per 5 gallons) may be added to white wines to increase the astringency and give the wine longer aging potential. This is especially desirable if seedless grapes are used. Again, cover fermenter and allow to sit overnight stirring every 5 - 6 hours.
  1. For best results, rehydrate the wine yeast prior to adding to must. This is done by sprinkling the yeast in a half cup lukewarm water. Cover and allow to stand 15 - 20 minutes. Add to must and stir well. Also, add the Super Ferment yeast nutrient to must at this time (1/2 tsp. per gallon). If making red wine, stir 2 - 3 times per day to push the pulp "cap" down into the liquid. This will also increase flavor and color extraction from the pulp. Leave in primary for 3 - 7 days. The longer the wine is left in contact with the skins the greater the extraction of flavor, color, acid, and tannin. White wines should not require stirring (unless the fermentation is sluggish).
  2. For red wine, press the wine from the pulp after the 3 - 7 days are up. All wines should be transferred into the secondary fermenters after about a week. Siphon into glass jugs and attach the air lock. Fill the wine to the neck to eliminate exposure to air. Allow to ferment to completion (1.000 specific gravity) - about 3 - 4 weeks. Rack off sediment into another secondary and allow to sit about a month. Rack again and allow to sit 1-2 months. If clear and stable, the wine may be bottled at this point. lf not, continue racking at 1 - 2 month intervals until clear and stable. Once the wine is completed fermenting, add about 1/2 campden tablet per gallon at each racking to inhibit oxidation.
  3. When ready to bottle, stabilize with potassium sorbate (1/2 tsp. per gallon). Allow to stand 48 hours. If a sweeter wine is desired, sweeten to taste with either fructose or a sugar syrup (2 parts sugar to 1 part boiling water). Bottle and cork the wine and allow to stand upright for 3 to 4 days. Then lay wine on its side and allow to age for at least 4 to 6 months - much longer for the heavier reds.